Elements of the football that today are tested are the deformation of the football when it is kicked or when the ball hits a surface. Two styles of footballs have been tested by the Sports Technology Research Group of Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering in Loughborough University; these two models are called the Basic FE model and the Developed FE model of the football. The basic model considered the ball as being a spherical shell with isotropic material properties. The developed model also utilised isotropic material properties but included an additional stiffer stitching seam region.
This is an official Nike Merlin Match ball. It is used with no defects during play. There is sharpie on the ball; This does not affect the play of the ball. There are minor nicks on the ball (shown in pictures); holds air perfectly fine. Does not come with original packaging. This is an official Nike ball used within NCAA league play. The ball will ship deflated to make shipping cheaper. As mentioned, there will be no packaging since these balls come in bulk orders. Will ship fast No return
The game of soccer has evolved greatly over the years and the ball has evolved with it.  In days past, defenses played with as many as six men back.  Then things changed around the 1950s to allow when many teams played four forwards at one time!  Now, we are in a period where we see (sometimes) one natural forward in a team.  The changes that have happened in the game have oftentimes been a result of the changes to the soccer ball itself.  Through its many changes, it has allowed teams to change strategies.
Whereas plenty of manufacturers that we reviewed opted to go with a soccer ball that was more durable than responsive, Mikasa takes the opposite approach and focuses primarily on the touch that their ball can provide. This is most apparent in the soccer ball’s choice of casing material. The synthetic leather casing of the Mikasa is by far the softest and naturally responsive-without the inclusion of texture-out of any other soccer ball we reviewed. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OKagE2ZIRA